When installing joists onto the top plate of a roof, you need to use different types of fasteners depending on whether it’s single-ply plywood or OSB. For single-ply plywood, you can use 3/4″ diameter, 6-32 screws and 2-1/2″ long bolts; this is known as a “butt joint.” For OSB, you will need to drill 1/8″-diameter holes with a #7 wood bit, and then use either 4-40 screws or 4-40 bolts.
If you’re using single-ply plywood, you’ll need to attach the hanger directly to the joist. (This means that your hanger must be able to support the weight of the entire joist.) If you’re using OSB, you’ll have to attach the hanger to the header first. This is so you don’t overload the joist itself.
With both methods, you want to use the same type of screw or bolt in each hole. You might think about using washers when you install the screws or bolts, but many people do not use them because they’re not needed in most situations. Here are some guidelines.
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You should always use 3/4″-diameter, 6-32 screws or 2-1/2″, 4-40 bolts with butt joints. The reason for this is that you never want to overstretch a single-ply board and break it. When you’re using a butt joint, you only need to insert the screw or bolt about one-fourth of its length into the lumber. If you put more than that, you could damage the board by stretching it too much.
If you’re using a hanger on an OSB header, you may want to run two rows of screws across the width of the board, rather than just one row. This allows you to keep the load closer to the center of the board, where it’s actually needed.
When you’re attaching the hanger to the header, you really don’t need any extra hardware or washers. Just make sure that the screws are snug enough. Also, if you’re using a butt joint, you want to make sure that the bottom of the joist is flat against the top surface of the header. It doesn’t matter how tight you tighten the screws; if there’s even the slightest gap between the boards, the joint won’t work properly.
The main difference between butt joints and bolts is that you don’t need to pre-drill a hole on butt joints. That said, you should always use pre-drilled holes when you’re bolting the hanger to the joist. If you’re using screws, you’ll also need to add washers. For a 4-40 bolt, you want to put at least one washer in each hole.
Headers aren’t usually attached to the top of the building, so you don’t need to worry about having to pre-drill any holes. However, you still want to tighten the bolts snugly. You may want to consider adding locking nuts, which would prevent the screws from loosening under vibration.
Tongue & Groove Fasteners
These fasteners are used primarily for attaching steel beams. If you’re just hanging joists off of a beam, you shouldn’t use these fasteners; you could end up damaging the beam. However, if you’re attaching joists to a stud wall, tongue & groove fasteners will hold the joists together very securely. They’re also a great choice if you’re building a truss.
It’s important to note that the holes in the beam should be made with a power drill, and not a hand drill. The beam needs to have its grain running in the direction of the screw, otherwise it could split open.
Hangman Roof Ties
Also called hangman roof ties, these are a great option for attaching metal roofs to buildings. The most common material used for these roof ties is aluminum. They come in all sorts of shapes and sizes. Some are designed specifically for use on certain kinds of roofs, like corrugated metal roofs.
Roof Tie Types
There are three basic types of roof tie:
Screwed Roof Ties –
These are the cheapest, but also the weakest. Screwed roof ties are inserted through a hole in the roof and screwed down to the rafters. Because the screw is exposed, it has the potential to loosen over time.
Lapped Roof Ties –
Lapped roof ties come with a self-tapping screw that goes through the roof decking and into the top of the rafters. The lap creates a larger area for the screw to bite into, creating a stronger connection.
Grommet Roof Ties –
Grommets are smaller versions of lapped roof ties. Instead of going through the grommet, the screw goes around the outside edge. Because the screw isn’t exposed, it’s less likely to loosen over time.
For all roof ties, the best way to ensure strength is to make sure the screw is tightened all the way down in the top of the rafter.
Metal Roof Ties
Metal roof ties are another popular choice for attaching metal roofs to buildings. They are typically made of galvanized steel. Like other roof ties, they come in a variety of styles.
Some roof ties are designed to go through the roof decking and into the rafters, while others go through the sheathing (the exterior layer of the roof). Metal roof ties are either installed with an expansion nut or without one. An expansion nut is usually a hexagonal piece of metal that fits over the head of the screw and prevents the screw from turning.
In addition to the expansion nut, there are other options that may help strengthen the connection. For example, you can use a locknut, which is a similar design to the expansion nut, except it has a hexagonal head instead of a round head. Another option is a lock washer, which acts like a washer but is threaded on both ends. Lock washers and locknuts are often used in conjunction with expansion nuts.
As far as which type of metal roof tie you choose, it depends on what kind of roof you have. For instance, if you have a metal roof with a lot of snow loads, you may want to choose a metal roof tie that goes through the roof decking. On the other hand, if you have a metal roof with little snow loads, you may prefer a metal roof tie that goes through the sheathing.